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Q. What is the difference between "~ masu" and "~ te imasu"?

A. The suffix "~ masu (~ます)" is the present tense of a verb. It is used in formal situations.

Hon o yomimasu.
本を読みます。
I read a book.
Ongaku o kikimasu.
音楽を聞きます。
I listen music.

When "~ imasu (~います)" follows the "te form" of a verb, it describes progressive, habitual or condition. 

(1) Progressive
It indicates that an action is ongoing. It is translated as the "~ ing" of English verbs. 

Denwa o shite imasu.
電話をしています。
I am making a phone call.
Shigoto o sagashite imasu.
仕事を探しています。
I am looking for a job.

(2) Habitual
It indicates repeated actions or constant states. 

Eigo o oshiete imasu.
英語を教えています。
I teach English.
Nihon ni sunde imasu.
日本に住んでいます。
I live in Japan.

(3) Condition
It describes a condition, situation or the result of an action.

Kekkon shite imasu.
結婚しています。
I am married.
Megane o kakete imasu.
めがねをかけています。
I wear glasses.
Mado ga shimatte imasu.
窓が閉まっています。
The window is closed.

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