Asking Directions (3)
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Japanese has sets of words which are based on the physical distance from the speaker and the listener. They are called "ko-so-a-do words" because the first syllable is always either ko-, so-, a-, or do-. "Ko-words" refer to things nearer to the speaker, "So-words" to things nearer to the listener, "A-words" to things that are at distance from both the speaker and the listener, and "Do-words" are questions words.
(1) kono/sono/ano/dono + [Noun]
They cannot be used on their own. They have to be followed by the noun that they modify.
|that book over there|
They cannot be followed by a noun. They can be replaced with kono/sono/ano/dono + [Noun] when the things indicated are obvious.
|Kono hon o yomimashita.
|I read this book.|
|Kore o yomimashita.
|I read this.|
(3) Ko-so-a-do Chart
The "kochira" group can be used as the polite equivalent of the "kore" or "koko" group. These expressions are often used by employees in the service industries.
|Kore wa ikaga desu ka.
|How about this one?|
Kochira wa ikaga desu ka.
|How about this one? (more polite)|
|Asoko de omachi kudasai.
|Please wait over there.|
Achira de omachi kudasai.
|Please wait over there. (more polite)|